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How to Produce TFT-LCD Panels

openA TFT-LCD Module
The finished product: a TFT-LCD Panel - Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display Panel

open TFT-LCD: A Sandwich-like Structure
TFT-LCD is basically a sandwich-like structure, with liquid crystal filled between two glass substrates, namely TFT Array Glass and Color Filter. The TFT Array Glass has as many TFTs as the number of pixels displayed, while the Color Filter Glass generates the color. Liquid crystals move according to the difference in voltage between the Color Filter and the TFT Glass. The amount of light supplied by the Backlight is determined by the amount of movement of the liquid crystals in such a way as to generate color.

open Over 300 Steps in the Fabrication Process
The Fabrication of a TFT-LCD panel is a high precision-process requiring over 300 individual steps. This process takes place in a Clean Room. The highest level of Clean Room – a Class 10”—is one in which no more than 10 particles of dust per cubic feet can be found.

open TFT-LCD Fabs – Size Matters
TFT-LCD Fabs come in a range of generations – from Generation 1 to Generation 8.5. The major difference between generations is the size of the mother glass. The larger the mother glass is, the larger the panel that can be produced. A Generation 8.5 mother glass, for example, is larger than a king size mattress at 220cm x 250 cm, and can optimally be cut into six 46" TV panels.

open The TFT-LCD Process - Array
The 3 major process groups for making a TFT-LCD Panel are Array, Cell and Module assembly. The Array Process is similar to the semiconductor manufacturing process, except that transistors are fabricated on a glass substrate instead of a silicon wafer.

open The TFT-LCD Process - Cell
The Cell Process joins the arrayed back substrate and the front color filter substrate. The space between the two substrates is filled with liquid crystal.

open How to Produce TFT-LCD Panels The TFT-LCD Process - Module
The Module Assembly Process involves connecting additional components, such as driver integrated circuits and backlight units, to the fabricated glass panel.